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Four models

There are four ways of thinking about the projective plane [3]. The most important of these for our purposes is homogeneous coordinates, a concept which should be familiar to anyone who has taken an introductory course in robotics or graphics. Starting with homogeneous coordinates, and proceeding to each of the other three models, we will attempt to gain intuition on the nature of the projective plane, whose concise definition will then emerge from the fourth model.


Stanley Birchfield